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Shakespearean Sonnets

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Shakespearean Sonnets are mostly written in Iambic Pentameter, also used in his plays.
Iamb (foot) is a part of a metrical line made up of two syllables, the first is unstressed and followed by the stressed one.

Iamb represents a heartbeat and is usually written as:
da DUM or baBOOM

Pentameter consists of five Iambs; it is called Iambic Pentameter and it is written as:

da DUM da DUM da DUM da DUM da DUM
or
baBOOM / baBOOM / baBOOM / baBOOM / baBOOM

Compare with Shakespeare's Sonnet 29:

When IN / dis GRACE / with FOR / tune AND / men’s EYES
I ALL / a LONE / be WEEP / my OUT/ cast STATE
Mabillard, Amanda. Shakespearean Sonnet Basics: Iambic Pentameter and the English Sonnet StyleShakespeare Online. 30 Aug. 2000.
Shakespeare's Sonnet consists of 14 lines divided into three quatrains (each of four lines) and ends with a couplet (of two lines).  The rhyme of a sonnet can be written as:  abab cdcd efef gg 
Reading Shakespeare's sonnets should begin with checking words in an etymologic…

Polyptoton

Polyptoton - one of the lesser-known rhetorical tricks. It is a kind of repetition, but with some changes. A repeated word either acts as different parts of speech or is used in different grammatical forms. 
"Let me not to the marriage of true minds Admit impediments. Love is not love Which alters when it alteration finds, Or bends with the remover to remove."  (Shakespeare, Sonnet 116)
Polyptoton: alters (verb), alteration (noun) and remover (noun), remove (verb).  Alliteration in words marriage, minds, admit and impediments (repeating the sound M).
"Please please me" (John Lenon) First please is an interjection whereas the second a verb. 
My favourite:  "Thank me no thankings, nor proud me no prouds." (Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet)
"Love is an irresistible desire to be irresistibly desired." (Robert Frost)
"Tut, tut! Grace me no grace, nor uncle me no uncle:
I am no traitor’s uncle; and that word ‘grace’
In an ungracious mouth is but profa…

Anaphora

Anaphora is a figure of repetition; it is the repetition of a word or a phrase at the beginning of the successive clauses, sentences or lines.

SONG OF MYSELFWalt Whitman 42
A call in the midst of the crowd,
My own voice, orotund sweeping and final.

Come my children,
Come my boys and girls, my women, household and intimates,
Now the performer launches his nerve, he has pass’d his prelude on the reeds
within. Easily written loose-finger’d chords—I feel the thrum of your climax and close.

My head slues round on my neck,
Music rolls, but not from the organ,
Folks are around me, but they are no household of mine.

Ever the hard unsunk ground,
Ever the eaters and drinkers, ever the upward and downward sun, ever the air
and the ceaseless tides,
Ever myself and my neighbors, refreshing, wicked, real,
Ever the old inexplicable query, ever that thorn’d thumb, that breath of itches
and thirsts,
Ever the vexer’s hoot! hoot! till we find where the sly one hides and bring him
forth,
Ever love, ever the sobbing liquid …

Physical metaphors

Parts of a metaphor
The metaphor comes in two main parts: a tenor and a vehicle.
The tenor is a subject of a metaphor and a vehicle is a concept giving the tenor another dimension.
Tenor and its vehicle are connected by a connecting word, mainly by a verb 'to be'.

She is a rock.
Tenor - she
Vehicle - rock
A connecting word - is
Dimension - concept, idea, characteristics of the rock (strong, stable, fundament etc)

Physical metaphors Metaphors and things Objectification  Making the concept concrete.
She was looking for true love.  (We cannot really see love, we feel it.) He grasped the idea. (Again, the idea is something abstract, it may be understood, but not really grasped.) Personification When a concept is given the human characteristics.  Justice is blind. His energy was burning.  His frustration ate him.  Metonymy When an object serves as a whole or the whole as an object. She is the brain in the office. (She is the most intelligent, not only her brain.) I like football. (n…